More than 19 million U.S. adults—nearly 8% of the population—had at least one major depressive episode in the past year. People of all ages and all racial and ethnic backgrounds experience depression, but it does affect some groups more than others
Depressive disorder, frequently referred to simply as depression, is more than just feeling sad or going through a rough patch. It’s a serious mental health condition that requires understanding and medical care. Left untreated, depression can be devastating for those who have it and their families. Fortunately, with early detection, diagnosis and a treatment plan consisting of medication, psychotherapy and healthy lifestyle choices, many people can and do get better. Depression is more than just feeling sad, it is a serious mental health condition that requires professional diagnosis.
Some will only experience one depressive episode in a lifetime, but for most, depressive disorder recurs. Without treatment, episodes may last a few months to several years.
Depression can present different symptoms, depending on the person. But for most people, depressive disorder changes how they function day-to-day, and typically for more than two weeks. Common symptoms include:
• Changes in sleep
• Changes in appetite
• Lack of concentration
• Loss of energy
• Lack of interest in activities
• Hopelessness or guilty thoughts
• Changes in movement (less activity or agitation)
• Physical aches and pains
• Suicidal thoughts
Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatments
Depression does not have a single cause. It can be triggered by a life crisis, physical illness or something else—but it can also occur spontaneously. Scientists believe several factors can contribute to depression:
- Trauma – When people experience trauma at an early age, it can cause long-term changes in how their brains respond to fear and stress. These changes may lead to depression.
- Genetics – Mood disorders, such as depression, tend to run in families.
Life circumstances. Relationship changes, finances and where a person lives influence whether a person develops depression.
- Brain changes – Imaging studies have shown that the frontal lobe of the brain becomes less active when a person is depressed. Depression is also associated with changes in hormone stimulation.
- Other medical conditions – People who have a history of sleep disturbances, medical illness, chronic pain, anxiety and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to develop depression. Some medical syndromes (like hypothyroidism) can mimic depressive disorder. Some medications can also cause symptoms of depression.
- Drug and alcohol misuse – 21% of adults with a substance use disorder also experienced a major depressive episode in 2018. Co-occurring disorders require treatments for both conditions, as alcohol can worsen depressive symptoms.
To be diagnosed with depressive disorder, a person must have experienced a depressive episode lasting longer than two weeks. The symptoms of a depressive episode include:
• Loss of interest or loss of pleasure in all activities
• Change in appetite or weight
• Sleep disturbances
• Feeling agitated or feeling slowed down
• Feelings of low self-worth, guilt or shortcomings
• Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
• Suicidal thoughts or intentions
Although depressive disorder can be a devastating illness, it often responds to treatment. The key is to get a specific evaluation and treatment plan. Safety planning is important for individuals who have suicidal thoughts. A treatment plan can include any or a combination of the following:
• Using the logical side of your brain such as doing puzzles or studying
• Light therapy, which uses a light box to expose a person to full spectrum light ito help with depression caused by vitamin D deficiencies
• Alternative approaches including acupuncture, meditation and nutrition can be part of a treatment plan.